Topic outline


    The publication has been published with the assistance of the Erasmus+ KA2 project called “Conscious Use of Natural Resources (CONATURE)”, number 2017-1-CZ01-KA204-035591.

    This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.


    The factors that threats landscape integrity and health are numerous  and they are the results of urbanistic expansion,  demographic increase and industrial and agricoltural  growth.

    In this chapter it is described the pesticide diffusion and impact in the conventional agricoltural system and in particular way about the negative interference that some substances released in environment have on bees health, compromising pollination activities.

    Similarly to pesticides question air, water and soil pollution constitutes deterioration factor for European landscape, to associate with the natural ecosystem loss caused by urbanized areas expansion.


    Water is essentially significant for life and landscape. It is the basic building block of life and all organisms, from the most primitive to the very advanced animals. Water determines the quality of the landscape. Along with the temperature, the availability of water is an abiotic factor affecting organisms and vegetation. Important processes take place in water and it serves as a solution agent.

    Water is also essential for the formation of the land relief, it affects atmosphere and forms habitats. In general, the landscape with fewer water areas heats up more quickly. Their absence thus may lead to the extreme climatic changes. The ability to retain water is also one of the very important landscape-forming factors.

    Water is an essential prerequisite of life. The human body contains approximately 70% of water. Plants contain up to 90% of water. The water cycle begins with the rainfall with more than 50% evaporating again, 10 – 20% draining to rivers, seas and oceans and less than 10% soaking in groundwater.

    The loss of water in the landscape is linked with the reduction of fertility of agricultural land.  Agricultural lands cease to exist due to desertification, urbanization, mining, erosion or other activities.

    Human activities do not always have to mean only the contamination of water sources, but also interventions in the water regime in the landscape may present a number of negative impacts. In past years, drainage of wetlands has started, and straightening of river flows, backfilling of blind stream branches or land reclamation meant the land’s loss of ability to retain and absorb water into the soil. There was a rapid run-off of the water from the landscape and reduced self-cleaning ability, there were storm rainfalls causing floods.